What is Torah? Of course, everybody has an answer to that question. “It means Law.” “It means instructions.” “It’s the Law of Moses.” That is all true. The thing is, it’s not until you really start asking questions that the real understanding deficit is exposed:
“Does Torah justify us?” “Are we saved by obedience?” “Is Torah our righteousness?” “Why do these rules exist?” “What is the ‘Spirit of the Law’?” “What does being ‘born again’ have to do with Torah?” “If we have to obey the Law to be saved, does that mean I can’t be saved uncircumcised?” “Didn’t the Holy Spirit replace the Law?” “What role does Torah play in the New Covenant?” “How do we know it’s our god’s will that we keep Torah?” “Did Paul teach against Torah?”
All of a sudden, that sharp, clear picture started to get a little blurry, right? Many of us don’t have all of those answers. Fewer still can answer these questions Biblically. But Torah is the foundation of the entire Bible, and, as such, the more and better we understand it, the better we understand everything else.
So, if you don’t understand ANYTHING else in the Bible at all, this is the one thing that you MUST learn – and learn well.
The Word ‘Torah’
Depending on the exact manuscripts of the Old Testament you look at, the word (pronounced) “torah” appears about 220 times from Genesis to Malachi. Depending on your version of the Bible, you’ll see this word translated into such things as “law”, “instruction”, “teaching”, “custom” and “ruling”. And, it actually IS all of these things, and maybe even a little more.
Without turning this study into a simple word study, let’s just take a QUICK look at a Hebrew lexicon to see what Torah actually means. Then I promise, we’ll back away from the technical aspect of it and delve into scriptural references and practical application.
תּוֹרָה n.f.—cstr. תּוֹרַת; sf. תּוֹרָתִי; pl. תּוֹרֹת; cstr. תּוֹרוֹת; sf. תּוֹרֹתָיו—1. instruction, teaching, a. of Y., the prophetic word Is 110, given by priests Dt 1711 Jr 1818, given by Y. to an individual Jb 2222. b. of human Ps 781, given for education, enlightenment, wisdom Pr 18 31. 2a. (collection, summary of) instruction, (code of) law, expressing the will of Y., and having binding force, the Torah Ex 2412 Dt 15; תּוֹרַת י׳ law of Y. 2 K 1031, סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה document of the law Dt 2861. b. pl. laws, in general Is 245, of Y. Gn 265, given at Sinai Lv 2646. c. law, regulation, rule, governing or concerning something in particular: the burnt offering Lv 62, the Nazirite Nm 613, leprosy Lv 1457. 3. decree, will of Y., concerning death of humans Si. 414. 4. perh. custom, manner of humans 2 S 719. → ירה III teach.
“תּוֹרָה,” CDCH, 485.
That is the short and sweet definition of Torah. For those of you who want to get way deeper, I’ve addended a slightly heavier lexical entry to the end of this study. Feel free to spend the next week of your life going through it all.
But look at some of the meaning we see associated with this word already: education, enlightenment and wisdom. So, Torah certainly IS law and it is instruction, but what we want to understand about it is not just that it IS instruction, but much more importantly what that instruction teaches us, what it binds us to, and why it’s there in the first place. When we understand this, the rest of the Bible starts to make pretty perfect sense!
I Know What it MEANS, Now – What Is It?
Ex. 13:9 And it shall serve as a sign to you on your hand, and as a reminder on your forehead, that the TORAH of YHWH may be in your mouth; for with a powerful hand YHWH brought you out of Egypt.
“Torah” in simplest terms describes all of the teachings, laws, instructions commandments and anything else the Creator (YHWH) gave His people to teach them what His will is. In other words, it’s what He wants US to DO. When a father raises a son and prepares him for success in life, this IS “Torah.”
We will NOT be going through every single thing the Bible says about Torah in this study, but I will try to give you enough highlights for the concept to start to materialize in your mind.
Ex. 24:12 Now YHWH said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the TORAH and the commandment which I have written for their instruction.”
So, the Ten Commandments were Torah. But is that all of Torah? Not at all. Because other commandments which were NOT carved in stone that day were also called “Torah.”
Lev. 6:9 Command Aaron and his sons, saying, “This is the TORAH for the burnt offering: the burnt offering itself shall remain on the hearth on the altar all night until the morning, and the fire on the altar is to be kept burning on it.”
What’s more – Torah is “righteousness.” (That’s a concept we’ll examine in greater detail later on.) Torah separates us from the nations (people) around us.
Deut. 4:8 Or what great nation is there that has statutes and judgments as righteous as this whole TORAH which I am setting before you today?
While Torah is instruction, it also happens to be a BINDING LAW to which we must adhere if we are to be part of the Father’s Kingdom.
Deut. 17:11 According to the terms of the TORAH which they teach you, and according to the verdict which they tell you, you shall do. You shall not turn aside from the word which they declare to you, to the right or the left.
And His intent on us keeping His Law is a point we see reiterated over and over again – often quite emphatically.
Deut. 27:26 Cursed is he who does not confirm the words of this TORAH by doing them. And all the people shall say, “Amen.”
Psa. 119:1 How blessed are those whose way is blameless, who walk in the TORAH of YHWH.
Prov. 28:9 He who turns away his ear from listening to the TORAH, even his prayer is an abomination.
I’ll stop with the sound bytes for now. Hopefully they make the point clear: YHWH wants His people – rather He DEMANDS of His people that they not just hear and learn Torah, but that they live in obedience of it, practicing his instructions day in and day out.
The Objective of Torah / The “Spirit of the Law”
Apostle Paul called Torah a “teacher,” which it is. The word means “instruction” after all. But if Torah teaches us, what is the LESSON we are supposed to be learning? You see, these are rules, but they aren’t designed to just be followed blindly. We are supposed to be developing and growing because of these rules. And, Paul also teaches us that.
Rom. 10:4 For Messiah is the GOAL OF THE TORAH for righteousness to everyone who believes.
Messiah was perfect. And how did he BECOME perfect? He practiced Torah. Thus, Messiah is the GOAL of every one of us. Why do we follow him? Why do we strive to walk as he walked? What does it even MEAN to “walk as he walked”? By now the picture should be coming together some.
Messiah was our perfect example of how to walk in Torah. He did it better than anybody. Thus, he learned the LESSON of Torah and then he even taught others what that lesson was.
Matt. 22:37 You shall love YHWH your god with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. 38 This is the great and foremost commandment. 39 The second is like it: you shall love your neighbor as yourself. 40 On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.
Why then do we have Torah? What is the lesson of Torah? Messiah just broke the whole thing down to two commandments, and these two have the same objective: LOVE. Torah teaches us to love YHWH and to love one another. And that’s it! That is the heart of Torah or rather “the spirit of the Law”. The Torah – the Law of Moses – teaches us love.
You and I think we already know what love is. We watch rom-com movies, or we read romance novels or we listen to sappy music and that teaches us one kind of love, but that is humanity’s idea of love. Torah, on the other hand, teaches us our Creator’s kind of love which is very different from our own. It doesn’t come naturally to us, and society doesn’t teach it to us. This is precisely why we need instruction (aka Torah)!
So now you understand (hopefully) the difference between the LETTER and the SPIRIT of the Law. The difference is blind obedience as opposed to obeying as a form of LOVE. This isn’t just some arbitrary obstacle course of legality given to test our faith. It’s the instruction of a Father who wants His children to know how to love Him and one another as well.
The Law Never “Saved” Anybody
Apostle Paul wrote a LOT about the Law (Torah). And as Apostle Peter noticed nearly 2,000 years ago, people who don’t study (unlearned) have a hard time understanding Paul’s letters, so they think he’s teaching against obedience (when in reality he is not).
2Pet. 3:15 Regard the patience of our Master as salvation; just as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, wrote to you, 16 as also in all his letters, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which the untaught and unstable distort, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures, to their own destruction. 17 You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, be on your guard so that you are not carried away by the error of lawlessness and fall from your own steadfastness.
It would be well beyond the focus of this study to address the many “proof verses” these “untaught and unstable” people use to accuse Paul of teaching against Torah, but there is one that we will look at because it serves our immediate purpose of understanding what Torah really is and what role it plays in our lives today. With this goal in mind, let’s analyze a couple of seemingly contradictory statements of Paul’s which are just one chapter apart.
Rom. 2:13 For it is not the hearers of the Law who are just before YHWH, but the doers of the Law will be justified.
Rom. 3:20 Because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.
“So does the Law justify a man or does it not, Paul?!”
“Justify” is a bit of a legal term. It means “to make just.” And what does it mean to be “just?” That means being found blameless before a certain body of Law which defines guilt. Then there’s another legal term we want to learn in the Bible, and that is “righteousness.” When we talk about being blameless before the Law, we are actually defining this very word: right-eous. If you are blameless, then you are on the RIGHT / JUST side of the Law. The question above then becomes, “If I obey the Law, will that MAKE me righteous?”
That really is a trick question if you go back and look at it more closely. Obeying the law will KEEP you blameless, but it cannot MAKE you blameless once you are already guilty! If you rob a bank today and then obey every law there is perfectly for the next ten years before the police finally catch up to you, guess what: you are STILL going to jail!
In that case, does (obedience to) Torah have the power to atone for your sins? Not a chance. If it did, we would have never needed the sacrifice of Messiah as atonement. MAKING us just is what only he has ever been able to do.
But once we have been MADE blameless and our sins are erased, obedience does KEEP us blameless. Remember what Messiah said, “Go and SIN NO MORE.” In other words, “I’ve paid your speeding tickets. Now STOP SPEEDING!”
MAKING somebody just is really what being “justified” means in this context. But once you have been justified, then it is your responsibility to live righteously by not breaking the Law of your Maker. You did that in the past, and that’s why you needed to be “saved” in the first place. Now that you are “saved” and have been justified and need to live in obedience / righteousness, this is where the Holy Spirit enters into the equation in the New Covenant that Messiah mediated between our Creator and ourselves.
The Transposition of the Torah
“Now we’re under a new covenant. It’s not like that old one Moses was under. Ours isn’t about laws; it’s about grace and faith. We are now guided by the Holy Spirit!”
Wrong. Well, mostly wrong.
You’ve heard this doctrine, at least you have if you’ve ever been a Christian for a day in your life. But let’s look at exactly what the New Covenant is and see if Law is any part of it. Let’s also look at the Holy Spirit which is a very integral part of our beloved “new covenant” and see HOW it guides us today.
Jer. 31:31 “Behold, days are coming,” declares YHWH, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares YHWH. 33 “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares YHWH, “I will put My TORAH within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.
So here is the very prophecy of our New Covenant and right there is the Torah – literally at the “heart” of the whole thing! And when we see the same prophecy reflected in Ezekiel’s eye, we’ll also see how the Holy Spirit is woven practically right into Jeremiah’s very words.
Ezek. 11:19 And I will give them one heart, and put a new spirit within them. And I will take the heart of stone out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, 20 that they may walk in My statutes and keep My ordinances and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their god.
And what exactly is the Prophet saying here? We’re going to be given a new Spirit, and instead of Torah being carved in stone, it will be written on our hearts. This will be done so that we will OBEY the things the Almighty commanded us.
There it is. That IS the New Covenant. I understand that this isn’t the “plan of salvation” you were taught in church, but it IS the one taught in the Bible. And that is how it works. We are cleansed of our past sins and we stop sinning from then on. We are justified and then we live righteously according to the Torah that the Holy Spirit writes on our hearts. We then walk according to the LETTER of the Law as we learn the SPIRIT of the Law, which is love.
The longest chapter in the Bible (Ps. 119) is all about Torah. Torah is discussed from Genesis to Revelation. I have an entire teaching which focuses on just what Messiah taught about Torah, and he said quite a bit. Every time somebody was judged / punished by YHWH in the Bible, it was because of the same thing – because they BROKE TORAH.
There are books and entire multi-volume commentary series which are written all about this one thing: Torah. And certainly in my humble study, I’ve only scratched the surface! But my goal here was to give you the Cliff’s Notes version of Torah. This was just a small boost to help you START learning all that Torah really is, how beautiful and purposeful it is, the vast history of cases of both obedience and disobedience we find in the Bible, the constant patience with which YHWH has always called us back to Torah (repentance), and even that Messiah’s whole ministry involved finding the “lost sheep” and bringing them back (to Torah).
Did I do the subject justice? Absolutely not. There is just too much that can and rightfully SHOULD be said about Torah. But if this at least gets you to look a little more deeply, then maybe it was worth my while to write and yours to read. And if you want to keep going, by all means – go on to the Addendum and start looking up verse after verse of all that Torah is and means.
Addendum – Deep, Deep Word Study
תּוֹרָה n.f. law—Q תורא (Q תרה); cstr. תּוֹרַת; sf. תּוֹרָתִי, תּוֹרָתְךָ (תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ, Q תורתכה), תּוֹרָתוֹ (תֹּרָתוֹ); pl. תּוֹרֹת; cstr. תּוֹרוֹת; sf. תּוֹרֹתַי (תּוֹרֹתָֽי, Q תורותי), תּוֹרֹתָיו.
1a. instruction, teaching of Y., the prophetic word (sing. Is 110 23||Mc 42 Is 524 816.20 309 424.24 514.7 perh. Jr 619 [unless §2a] Zc 712; plur. Dn 910).
- instruction, teaching, law, given by priests (Dt 1711 3310 Jr 28 1818 Ezk 726 2226 Ho 46 perh. 812 perh. Hb 14 Zp 34 Hg 211 Ml 18.104.22.168 perh. Lm 29 2 C 153), law, interpreted by Levites (2 C 1910), law(s) of temple (Ezk 4311.12.12 445.24).
- pl. instructions, decisions, applicable to legal case (Ex 1816.20).
- instruction, teaching of psalmist (Ps 781), given by humans for education, enlightenment, wisdom (Pr 18 31 42 620.23 72 1314 222.214.171.124 2918 3126), given by Y. to an individual (Jb 2222), from or concerning Y. (Ex 139).
2a. (collection, summary of) instruction, (code of) law, expressing the will of Y., and having binding force, the Torah (perh. Ex 164 [unless §2c] 2412 Dt 15 48.44 1718=11QT 5621 Dt 1719 273.8.26 2858.61 2920.28 3010 3126.96.36.199.26 3246 334 Jos 17.8 8188.8.131.52 225 236 2426 1 K 23 2 K 1031 146 1713.34.37 218 228.11||2 C 3415.19 2 K 2324.25 Is 4221 perh. Jr 619 [unless §1a] 88 912 1611 264 3133 3223 4410.23 Ho 81 Am 24 Ml 322 Ps 785.10 8931 Dn 911.11.13 Ezr 32 76.10 103 Ne 81+8t 184.108.40.206.34 1029.30.35.37 1244 133 1 C 1640 2212 2 C 616 121 143 179 2318 254 3016 313.4.21 338 3414 3526 Si 151 3517.18[B] [Bmg E מִצְוָה commandment] 3524 418 422 494 1QH 1210 1311 1410 1QpHab 111 512 711 1QS 220.127.116.11 618.22 82.22 99.17 1QSa 111 1QpMic 87.8 [both [התורה]] 1QDM 14 [הת[ו]רה] 112 [[התורה]] 29 [הת[ורה]] 4QpIsac 23.212.14a 4QpIsae 13 4QpPsa 18.104.22.168 1.42.8 111 4QMidrEschata 311 42 4QMidrEschatb 95 1014 4QJuba prologue [[התורה]] 11 [התור[ה]] 14 [לתור[ה]] 112 [[ה]תורה] 126 [[לתור]ה] 224 4QJubb 21 4QSb 97 4QSd 11.2 [תור[ה]] 13.7 [הת[ורה]] 23.4 4QSD 4.26 4QDa 5.117 7.35 [[ת]ורה] 116.18 4QDb 5.21 [[ התורה]] 4QDe 7.215 4QDh 21 [התו[רה]] 61 4QCurses 26 [[התורה]] 4QBera 7.212 [[התורה]] 4QErr 23.5 4QapJosephb 127 [תור[תך]] 4QparaKings 157 1047 [[התורה]] 4QapJerCb 38 4Qap JerCd 8.24 4QMMT C24 [[התו]רה] C24.27.28 4QVision 110 [ת[ורת]] 4QBarkc 1.14.6 4QZedek 14 4QDibHama 1.213 48 4QOrdb 45 4QBéat 2.24 6QapSamKgs 213 [התור[ה]] 11QPsa 248 11QT 563.4.7 571.14 599.10 CD 48 52.7 64.7.14 77[A].8[A]=194[B].4[B] 715.18 917 136 148 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 [CD 169 [[התו]רה] 193 188.8.131.52.28 GnzPs 46).
As object of delight, study, meditation, or as source of blessing, enlightenment, righteousness (e.g. Ps 12.2 198 3731 409 9412 1191+24t Si 637 [if em.; see Cstr.] 3515 362 455 1QS 66 815 4QDe 2.219 [תור[ת]] 11QPsa 1812 GnzPs 227).
- pl. laws, in general (Is 245), of Y. (Gn 265 Ex 1628 Ps 10545 4QJuba 114 4QBarka 1.19), given at Sinai (Lv 2646 Ne 913 4QapPsB 695).
- law, regulation, rule, governing or concerning something in particular (perh. Ex 164 [unless §2a] Lv 62.7.18 184.108.40.206 1146 127 1359 220.127.116.11 1532 Nm 529.30 613.21.21 192.14 3121 1QS 516 4QSb 910 4QDa 6.113 [[תור]ת] 11QT 294 507.17 CD 135), applicable to native and sojourner alike (Ex 1249 Nm 1516.29).
- decree, will of Y., concerning death of humans (Si. 414).
- perh. custom, manner of humans, unless instruction for humans (2 S 719 [or em.; see Cstr.]).
<SUBJ> היה be Ex 1249 139 Lv 142 Nm 1516.29 Ml 26, הלך go perh. 4QErr 25, יצא go out Is 23||Mc 42 Is 514, שׁוב hi. bring back Ps 198, נתן ni. be given Ne 1030, פוג be numb Hb 14, אבד perish Jr 1818 Ezk 726.
<NOM CL> זאֹת הַתּוֹרָה this is the law Lv 737 1454 1914 Dt 444 11QT 571, vars. Lv 67.18 71.11 1146 127 1359 1432.57 1532 Nm 529 613.21 2 S 719 Ezk 4312.12 4QJuba 224, אֵלֶּה . . . הַתּוֹרֹת these are . . . the laws Lv 2646.
תורתו טט[פת] his law is an amulet Si 363, הבאר היא התורה the well is the law CD 64, תּוֹרַת חָכָם מְקוֹר חַיִּים the teaching of the wise is a fountain of life Pr 1314, תּוֹרָה אוֹר teaching is a light Pr 623, תּוֹרָתְךָ שַׁעֲשֻׁעָֽי your law is my delight Ps 11977.92.174, תּוֹרָתְךָ אֱמֶת your law is truth, i.e. true Ps 119142, תּוֹרַת י׳ תְּמִימָה the law of Y. is perfect Ps 198, טוֹב־לִי תּוֹרַת־פִּיךָ the law of your mouth is better to me than thousands of gold and silver pieces Ps 11972 GnzPs 227.
תּוֹרָתִי בְלִבָּם my law is in their heart Is 517, var. Ps 3731, תּוֹרָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעָֽי your law is within me Ps 409, תּוֹרַת י׳ אִתָּנוּ the law of Y. is with us Jr 88, תּוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־ לְשׁוֹנָהּ the teaching of kindness is on her tongue Pr 3126, תּוֹרָה אַחַת לָהֶם there is one law for them Lv 71, אֵין תּוֹרָה there is no instruction Lm 29.
<OBJ> קרא read Dt 3111, נגד hi. proclaim 11QT 563.7, צוה pi. command Dt 334 Jos 17 225 2 K 1713 218 Ml 322 Ne 914 4QDibHama 48 (צו[יתה]), שׁאל ask for Hg 211, בקשׁ pi. seek Ml 27 4QJuba 112 ([ה]תורה) 4QErr 23 4Q MMT C24 (מב[ק]שי), דרשׁ study Ezr 710 Si 3515 4QOrda 56 ([לד]רוש), שׁעע pilp. delight in Ps 11970, אהב love Ps 11918.104.22.168, ירא fear 4QMMT C24 ([התו]רה), אזן hi. hear Is 110 Ps 781, שׁמע hear Is 309 Zc 712 Pr 289 Ne 133, זכר remember Ml 322 Ps 11955 (if em.; see below), mention CD 152.
ידע hi. make known Ex 1816 Ezk 4311 Ps 785, גלה reveal 4QpIsae 13 4QBarka 1.19, זהר hi. teach Ex 1820, ירה hi. teach perh. Ex 2412 Dt 1711 3310 (יוֹרוּ; =4Q Testim18 ויאירו and they shall cause to shine, i.e. אור hi.) 1QpMic 87 ([יורה התורה]), למד pi. teach 4QapJosephb 127 (תור[תך]), שׁנן pi. sharpen, i.e. teach incisively 1QH 1210, באר pi. explain Dt 15, כתב write Ex 2412 Dt 319 2 K 1737 11QT 5621 571 ([יכתובו]), גדל pi. magnify 1QH 1410, גדל hi. Is 4221, כבד hi. make glorious GnzPs 46, אדר hi. make glorious Is 4221.
בוא hi. bring Ne 82, שׁלח send Zc 712 4QpPsa 1.48, פקד visit, i.e. enjoin 4QBarkc 1.16 ([פקד]תה), נתן give Ex 2412 Lv 2646 Dt 319 Ne 913 4QJuba 11 ([אתן] . . . התור[ה]) 4QapPsB 695 ([נתן]) 4QparaKings 1047 ([התורה]), i.e. place Dt 48 Jr 3133 4410 Dn 910, שׂים place Dt 444 Ps 785 4QDe 2.219 ([שימו] תור[ת]) Si 455, נטע plant 4QDibHama 1.213, חבה hide 1QH 1311, מור hi. exchange 1QH 1210, לקח take Jb 2222 4QJuba prologue ([ל]ק[חת . . . התורה]), פוק hi. obtain Si 3515.
שׁמר keep Gn 265 Ex 1628 Jr 1611 Ezk 4424 11934.44.55 (or em. וָאֶשְׁמְרָה and I have kept to וְאַשְׁמוּרָה and [during] the watch I remember your law) 119136 Pr 72 284 2918 1 C 2212 Si 3518(B), נצר keep Ps 10545 11934 Pr 287 Si 3524 4QBarkc 1.14, תפשׂ handle Jr 28 Si 151, חנן graciously give Ps 11929, עשׂה do Nm 530 Jos 225 2 K 1737 Ezk 4311 (if em. צוּרָתוֹ its form to תּוֹרֹתַי my laws) Ezr 710 Ne 934 2 C 143 1QpHab 711 81 125 1QpMic 88 ([עושי התורה]) 4QpPsa 1.214.22 4QMidrEschata 42 4QTanḥ 177 ([ע]שו) 4QZedek 14, hi. cause to be performed 4QZedek 14, חתם seal Is 816.
סור appar. turn aside from 4QDf 4.210 (את התורה; =CD 169 מ[ן התו]רה), שׁלך hi. cast Ne 926, עבר transgress Is 245 Dn 911, מאס reject Is 524 Am 24 1QpHab 512 4QpIsac 23.214a 4QpPsa 1.42(Abegg) ([מאסו]), געל abhor 4QapJerCd 8.24 11QT 599, עזב forsake Jr 912 Ps 8931 11953 Pr 42 284 2 C 121 Si 418 494, נטשׁ forsake Pr 18 620, שׂנא hate Si 362, שׁכח forget Ho 46 Ps 11961.109.153 Pr 31 4QJuba 114, משׁך pull away, i.e. pervert Si 3517, חמס treat violently Ezk 2226 Zp 34, פרר hi. break Ps 119126 4QVision 110 (ת[ורת]).
<CSTR> תּוֹרַת י׳ law of Y. Ex 139 2 K 1031 Is 524 309 Jr 88 Am 24 Ps 12 198 1191 Ezr 710 Ne 93 1 C 1640 2212 2 C 121 179 313.4 3414 3526, אֱלֹהִים of God Jos 2426 Ne 88.18 1029.30 (all four הָאֱלֹהִים) 4QparaKings 157 (אלוהים), אֱלֹהֶיךָ of your God Ho 46 1 C 2212 (…תּוֹרַת ), אֱלֹהָיו of his God Ps 3731, אֱלֹהֵינוּ of our God Is 110, תּוֹרַת . . . אֱלֹהֵיהֶם law of . . . their God Ne 93, תּוֹרַת . . . אֱלֹהֵי law of . . . the God of 2 K 1031, תורת אל law of God 1QpHab 111 4QDe 2.219 (תור[ת אל]) 4QVision 110 (ת[ורת אל]), עליון of the Most High Si 637 (if em. יראת fear of ) 414 (על[ון]) 418 422 494 4QBéat 2.24 11QPsa 1812.
תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה law of Moses Jos 831.32 236 1 K 23 2 K 146 2325 Ml 322 Dn 911.13 Ezr 32 76 Ne 81 2 C 2318 3016 1QS 58 822 4QSb 97 4QDa 116 4QOrdb 45 CD 152.9.12 162.5.
תּוֹרַת הָאָדָם perh. manner of humanity 2 S 719 (or em. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָדָם and this is the law of humanity to וַתַּרְאֵנִי בְּתוֹר הָאָדָם הַמַּעֲלָה and you have shown me the turn of humanity to come, i.e. the generation to come; ||1 C 1717 כְּתּוֹר according to the line of ), תּוֹרַת . . . אִישׁ law of . . . the man of God Ezr 32, תּוֹרַת אִמֶּֽךָ teaching of your mother Pr 18 620, תּוֹרַת . . . עֶבֶד law of . . . the servant of Dn 911, תּוֹרַת . . . עַבְדִּי law of . . . my servant Ml 322, תּוֹרַת חָכָם teaching of the wise Pr 1314, תורת ההו[ללים] law of the boastful 4QMidrEschatb 84, תּוֹרַת־פִּיךָ law of your mouth Ps 11972 GnzPs 227 ([פ]יך).
תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת law of, i.e. concerning, the one who gives birth Lv 127, הַנָּזִיר of the Nazirite Nm 613.21, הַזָּב of the one with a discharge Lv 1532, הַמְּצֹרָע of the person with a skin disease Lv 142.
תּוֹרַת הַצָּרַעַת law of, i.e. concerning, skin disease Lv 1457 4QDa 6.113 ([תור]ת), תורת נגע law of, i.e. concerning, disease CD 135, תּוֹרַת נֶגַע law of, i.e. concerning, the disease of Lv 1359, נִזְרוֹ of his consecration Nm 621, הַקְּנָאֹת of jealousy Nm 529.
תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה law of, i.e. concerning, beasts and birds and every living creature Lv 1146.
תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה law of the burnt offering Lv 62, הַמִּנְחָה of the grain offering Lv 67, הַחַטָּאת of the sin offering Lv 618, הָאָשָׁם of the guilt offering Lv 71, זֶבַח of the sacrifice of peace offerings Lv 711, הַבָּ֑יִת of the house, i.e. temple Ezk 4312.12 (הַבָּֽיִת).
תּוֹרַת־חֶסֶד teaching of kindness, i.e. kind teaching Pr 3126, תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת instruction of truth, i.e. true instruction Ml 26, תּוֹרוֹת laws of, i.e. true laws Ne 913, תורות שלום ואמת laws of peace and truth 4QBarka 1.19, תורת חיים ותבונה law of life and understanding Si 455, תורת הצ[דק] law of righteousness 4QpIsae 13, המשפט of the ordinance 11QT 294, תּוֹרַת אֲשֶׁר law of the one who Lv 1432 1532 (תּוֹרַת . . . ).
אנשי התורה men of the law 4QSd 11 (=1QS 51 היחד of the community), דורש התורה interpreter of the law 4Q MidrEschata 311 4QMidrEschatb 95 CD 67 718, עושה התורה the one who does, i.e. keeps, the law 4QpPsa 1.222 appar. 1QpHab 125, עושי התורה those who do, i.e. keep, the law 1QpHab 711 81 1QpMic 88 ([עושי התורה]) 4Qp Psa 1.214, שֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה those who keep instruction Pr 284, תֹּפְשֵׂי הַתּוֹרָה those who handle the law Jr 28, אֹהֲבֵי תוֹרָתֶ֑ךָ those who love your law Ps 119165, מב[ק]שי תורה those who seek (the) law 4QMMT C24, עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה those who forsake instruction Pr 284, עזבי תורת those who forsake the law of the Most High Si 418, עֹזְבֵי תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ those who forsake your law Ps 11953.
הַתּוֹרָהחֻקַּת statute of the law Nm 192 3121, משפט התורה ordinance of the law 11QT 507.17, משפטי ordinances of 4QBera 7.212 (משפ[טי התורה]) CD 148, משפטות ordinances of 1QSa 111 (התורא), משפט תורת ordinance of the law of 4QDa 6.113 ([תור]ת), סרך התורה rule of the law CD 78(A)=194(B), מנהג custom of CD 193, מעשי deeds of 4QSD 4.26 ([מעשי]) 4QMMT C27, גבול boundary of CD 2025.
דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה words of the law Dt 1719 273.8.26 2858 2928 3112.24 3246 Jos 834 2 K 2324 Ne 89.13 2 C 3419 (||2 K 2211 סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה of the document of the law) 1QDM 14 ([ד]ברי הת[ו]רה ) 112 ([דברי התורה]) 29 (הת[ורה]) 11QT 5910 CD 52.
סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה document of the law Dt 2861 2920 3010 3126 Jos 18 834 2 K 228||2 C 3415 2 K 2211 Ne 83 4QMidr Eschatb 1014 4QDh 21 (ספר התו[רה]) 6QapSamKgs 213 ([ס]פר התור[ה]) 11QT 564, תּוֹרַת of the law of Y. Ne 93 2 C 179 3414, God Jos 2426 Ne 88(mss) (L בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת from the document, from the law of ) 818, Moses Jos 831 236 2 K 146||2 C 254 (if em.; see App.) Ne 81, ספרי התורה documents of the law CD 715.
מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה a copy, or the second promulgation, or, exposition, of the law Dt 1718, מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת a copy, or the second promulgation, or, exposition, of the law of Moses Jos 832, פרוש התורה interpretation of the law CD 48 614 136, מדרש interpretation, or, study of 1QS 815 4QDa 5.117 ([מדרש ה]תורה) 4QDe 7.215 ([ה]תורה) CD 206, עצת counsel of 1QS 99.17 4QDh 61, מדע knowledge of 4QMMT C28 (תורה), [נ]סתרי תורתך hidden things of your law 4Q psHodA 22, בית house of CD 2010.13, מְנָאוֹת הַתּוֹרָה portions of, i.e. prescribed by, the law Ne 1244, רֻבֵּי תּוֹרָתִי multitudes of (precepts of) my law Ho 812(Qr) (Kt רבו ten thousand [precepts] of ).
כול תורה any law 1QS 516 4QSb 910, כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה all the law Nm 530 Dt 48 (כֹּל) Jos 17 2 K 1713 218 2 C 338 1QS 82 4QMidrEschata 42 (both כול) 4QZedek 14, כֹּל תּוֹרַת all the law of 2 K 2325, כָּל־תּוֹרֹתַי all my laws Ezk 4311 (if em. צוּרָתוֹ all its form) 4QJuba 114 (תורותי), כָּל־תּוֹרֹתָיו all its laws Ezk 4311(Qr) 445(Qr) (both Kt תורתו).
<APP> מִשְׁמֶרֶת observance Gn 265, מִצְוָה commandment Si 455, לוּחַ tablet 4QJuba prologue ([לוחות . . . התורה]) 11 ([לוחות] התור[ה]), סֵפֶר document 2 C 254 (or em. בַּתּוֹרָה בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה in the law, in the document of Moses to בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת in the document of the law of Moses, with ||2 K 146).
<ADJ> אֶחָד one Ex 1249 Lv 77 Nm 1516.29, רִאשׁוֹן first 4QJuba 224 (הראש[ונה]), שֵׁנִי second 4QMidrEschatb 1014, זאֹת this Nm 530 Dt 15 48 1718=11QT 5621 Dt 1719 273.8.26 2858.61 (סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת the document of this law; Sam, mss זֶה this document of the law) 2928 322.214.171.124 3246 4QZedek 21 (הז[את]) 11QT 507.17 5910.
<PREP> לְ of direction, benefit, to, for Is 820, + שׁוב go back 4QpPsa 1.23 111, כון hi. establish perh. 4QBarka 212; of purpose, for (the purpose of), + ישׁב sit 11QT 5714; יחל לְ pi. wait for Is 424.
לְ concerning 1QS 53 4QSd 13 CD 135; concerning or introducing object, + דבר pi. speak Ezk 445, בין hi. cause to understand Ne 87; according to, in respect of, + שׁוב hi. bring back, i.e. respond 1QS 516 4QSb 910 ([ישיב]), כתב write, i.e. register 1QS 622, עשׂה do 2 K 218; namely 2 C 338.
לְ of possession, of, (belonging) to 4QJuba 14 (לתור[ה]) 126 ([לתור]ה) 4QJubb 21.
בְּ of place, in perh. 4QpIsac 23.212 perh. 4QWiles 22 (בתור[ה]) CD 152, + כתב pass. be written Dn 911.13 Ezr 32 Ne 814 1035.37 1 C 1640 2 C 2318 254 313 3526, מצא ni. be found 4QDa 116, דקק polp. be minutely treated CD 162.
בְּ in (the matter of), concerning Ps 12 76 (מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה skilled in the law of Moses) 1QS 521 618 (both מעשיו בתורה his works in the law) 4QSd 12 (יחד בתור[ה] a community in the Torah) 23.4 (both מעשיו בתורה), + הגה meditate Ps 12, נשׂא lift face, i.e. show partiality Ml 29, חזק be strong 2 C 314.
בְּ in (accordance with), + הלך go Ex 164 2 K 1031 Jr 912 264 3223 4410.23 Ps 7810 1191 Dn 910 Ne 1030 2 C 616, htp. 4QBéat 2.24, חלל hi. begin 2 C 3121; of accompaniment, with, in 11QPsa 1812, + היה be 1QS 52.
בְּ of instrument, by (means of), with, + כשׁל hi. cause to stumble Ml 28, יקשׁ ni. be ensnared Si 3515, צרף pass. be refined 4QSapb 25.
בְּ from, + קרא read Ne 88 (בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת from the document, from the law of; mss בַסֵּפֶר תּוֹרַת from the document of the law of ).
בְּ introducing object, + קרא read CD 52, שׁמע hear, i.e. obey Is 4224, בין hi. cause to understand 11QPsa 248, htpol. consider Si 637 (if em.; see Cstr.), דרשׁ study 1QS 66, מאס reject Jr 619 1QpHab 111 4QDa 7.35 (המוא[ס בת]ורה) Si 414.
כְּ as Dt 48; according to Ps 11985 11QT 294, + שׁוב go back 2 K 1713 2325, עמד stand 2 C 3016, עשׂה do Jos 17 2 K 1734, ni. be done Ezr 103, בדל hi. separate CD 57.
מִן of direction, from (perh. 1QMyst 52), + נטה turn aside Ps 11951 4QDa 1118 ([מן ה]תורה), סור turn aside 4QDibHama 1.213 ([סור ממנה]) 11QT 567 CD 169 (מ[ן התו]רה ; =4QDf 4.210 את התורה), רחק be far Ps 119150; of direction, instrument, from, by (means of), + גלה ni. be revealed 1QS 82 4QSd 17 (הת[ורה]) 4QDb 5.21 (מן התורה][ נגלה) CD 1513, נבט hi. behold Ps 11918, למד pi. teach Ps 9412; partitive, from (out of) 1QS 822 CD 168.
אֶל to, + שׁוב go back 1QS 58 4QSb 97 CD 159 (לש[וב]) 1512 162.5, hi. bring back Ne 929, בדל ni. separate oneself Ne 1029.
עַל against 4QCurses 26 ([על התורה]), + פשׁע transgress Ho 81, מעל sin CD 917; on account of, + בושׁ be ashamed Si 422, לחם ni. fight 4QapJerCb 38; according to, + עשׂה do Nm 621.
עַל־פִּי according to, + הלך htp. go CD 77(A)=194(B), בוא come CD 2028, יצא go out CD 2028 (ל[צ]את), עשׂה do Dt 1711 11QT 563.
בֵּין between, i.e. concerning 2 C 1910 (בֵּין־תּוֹרָה לְמִצְוָה לְחֻקִּים וּלְמִשְׁפָּטִים concerning law, commandment, statutes or ordinances).
<COLL> תּוֹרָה || מִצְוָה commandment Gn 265 Ex 1628 2412 Jos 225 2 K 1734.37 Ps 198 Pr 31 620.23 72 Ne 913.14 2 C 143 1910 3121 4QapPsB 695 GnzPs 46; + מִצְוָה Dt 3010 1 K 23 2 K 1713 Ne 929.34 1030.
|| פִּקּוּד precept Ps 198.
|| חֹק statute Ex 1816.20 2 K 1737 Is 245 Am 24 Ps 10545 Ne 913.14 2 C 1910 338 Si 424; + חֹק Dt 48 1719 Ml 322 Ne 1030.
|| חֻקָּה statute Gn 265 Jr 4410.23 Ezk 4311 445.24 4Qap JerCd 8.24; + חֻקָּה Dt 3010 1 K 23 2 K 1713.34.
|| מִשְׁפָּט ordinance Lv 2646 Nm 1516 Dt 1711 3310 2 K 1737 Ne 913 2 C 1910 338, judgment 1QS 53.16 622 11QT 5714; + מִשְׁפָּט Dt 48 1 K 23 2 K 1734 Is 424 514 Hb 14 Ml 322 Ps 8931 Ne 929 1030 CD 77.
|| דָּבָר word Is 110 23||Mc 42 Jr 1818 Zc 712 11QT 563; + דָּבָר Dt 1711 Jr 619 Si 363.
|| אִמְרָה word Is 524; + אֹמֶר word Ps 781 Jb 2222.
|| עֵצָה counsel Jr 1818 Ezk 726.
|| עֵדוּת testimony Jr 4423 Ps 198 785 Ne 934 (+), תְּעוּדָה testimony Is 816.20 4QJuba 224.
|| בְּרִית covenant Is 245 Ho 81 Ps 7810 (+) 4QapJerCb 38 4QBarkc 1.14 11QT 599.
|| מוּסָר discipline Pr 18, קֹדֶשׁ holiness Zp 34, טָהֳרָה purity 1QS 622, צְדָקָה righteousness Ps 119142, הוֹן wealth 1QS 52.3 4QSd 13.
+ דַּעַת knowledge Ml 27, לֶקַח teaching Pr 42, חָזוֹן vision Lm 29, צֶדֶק righteousness Is 517, תּוֹכַחַת reproof Si 3517, דֶּרֶךְ way Ex 1820 1 K 23 Is 4224, רָצוֹן will of Y. Ps 409, קוֹל voice of Y. Jr 912 3223 4423 Dn 911.
:: שֶׁקֶר falsehood Ps 119163.
הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה the law concerning the burnt offering, etc. Lv 737, הַתּוֹרָה לְכָל־נֶגַע הַצָּרַעַת the law concerning any skin disease, etc. Lv 1454, הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל the law (for) when a person dies in a tent Nm 1914, לְלאֹ תּוֹרָה without teaching 2 C 153.
Also 1Q29 161 4QpIsac 25 4QpIsae 67 4QTanḥ 178 4QMidrEschatb 816 4Q178 24 4QCommGenA 55 4QMg 94 (תור[ה]) 11QMelch 36 11Q25 41.
<SYN> מִצְוָה commandment, פִּקּוּד precept, חֹק statute, חֻקָּה statute, מִשְׁפָּט ordinance, judgment, דָּבָר word, אִמְרָה word, עֵצָה counsel, עֵדוּת testimony, תְּעוּדָה testimony, בְּרִית covenant, מוּסָר discipline, קֹדֶשׁ holiness, טָהֳרָה purity, צְדָקָה righteousness, הוֹן wealth.
<ANT> שֶׁקֶר falsehood.
→ ירה III teach.
“[תּוֹר],” DCH, 8:612-616.